Note: This article has also featured on geeksforgeeks.org .

This article discusses some more and a bit advanced methods available in NumPy.

Previous article in this series is available here: Introduction to NumPy

**1. Stacking and splitting**

Several arrays can be stacked together along different axes.

**np.vstack:**To stack arrays along vertical axis.**np.hstack:**To stack arrays along horizontal axis.**np.column_stack:**To stack 1-D arrays as columns into 2-D arrays.**np.concatenate:**To stack arrays along specified axis (axis is passed as argument).

import numpy as np a = np.array([[1, 2], [3, 4]]) b = np.array([[5, 6], [7, 8]]) # vertical stacking print("Vertical stacking:\n", np.vstack((a, b))) # horizontal stacking print("\nHorizontal stacking:\n", np.hstack((a, b))) c = [5, 6] # stacking columns print("\nColumn stacking:\n", np.column_stack((a, c))) # concatenation method print("\nConcatenating to 2nd axis:\n", np.concatenate((a, b), 1))

Output:

Vertical stacking: [[1 2] [3 4] [5 6] [7 8]] Horizontal stacking: [[1 2 5 6] [3 4 7 8]] Column stacking: [[1 2 5] [3 4 6]] Concatenating to 2nd axis: [[1 2 5 6] [3 4 7 8]]

For splitting, we have these functions:

**np.hsplit:**Split array along horizontal axis.**np.vsplit:**Split array along vertical axis.**np.array_split:**Split array along specified axis.

import numpy as np a = np.array([[1, 3, 5, 7, 9, 11], [2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12]]) # horizontal splitting print("Splitting along horizontal axis into 2 parts:\n", np.hsplit(a, 2)) # vertical splitting print("\nSplitting along vertical axis into 2 parts:\n", np.vsplit(a, 2))

Output:

Splitting along horizontal axis into 2 parts: [array([[1, 3, 5], [2, 4, 6]]), array([[ 7, 9, 11], [ 8, 10, 12]])] Splitting along vertical axis into 2 parts: [array([[ 1, 3, 5, 7, 9, 11]]), array([[ 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12]])]

**2. Broadcasting**

The term broadcasting describes how NumPy treats arrays with different shapes during arithmetic operations. Subject to certain constraints, the smaller array is “broadcast” across the larger array so that they have compatible shapes.

Broadcasting provides a means of vectorizing array operations so that looping occurs in C instead of Python. It does this without making needless copies of data and usually leads to efficient algorithm implementations. There are also cases where broadcasting is a bad idea because it leads to inefficient use of memory that slows computation.

NumPy operations are usually done element-by-element which requires two arrays to have exactly the same shape. Numpy’s broadcasting rule relaxes this constraint when the arrays’ shapes meet certain constraints.

**The Broadcasting Rule:**

In order to broadcast, the size of the trailing axes for both arrays in an operation must either be the same size or one of them must be

one.

Let us see some examples:

```
A(2-D array): 4 x 3
B(1-D array): 3
Result : 4 x 3
```

```
A(4-D array): 7 x 1 x 6 x 1
B(3-D array): 3 x 1 x 5
Result : 7 x 3 x 6 x 5
```

But this would be a mismatch:

```
A: 4 x 3
B: 4
```

The simplest broadcasting example occurs when an array and a scalar value are combined in an operation.

Consider the example given below:

import numpy as np a = np.array([1.0, 2.0, 3.0]) # Example 1 b = 2.0 print(a * b) # Example 2 c = [2.0, 2.0, 2.0] print(a * c)

Output:

[ 2. 4. 6.] [ 2. 4. 6.]

We can think of the scalar b being stretched during the arithmetic operation into an array with the same shape as a. The new elements in b, as shown in above figure, are simply copies of the original scalar. Although, the stretching analogy is only conceptual.

Numpy is smart enough to use the original scalar value without actually making copies so that broadcasting operations are as memory and computationally efficient as possible. Because Example 1 moves less memory, (b is a scalar, not an array) around during the multiplication, it is about 10% faster than Example 2 using the standard numpy on Windows 2000 with one million element arrays!

The figure below makes the concept more clear:

**In above example, the scalar b is stretched to become an array of with the same shape as a so the shapes are compatible for element-by-element multiplication.**

Now, let us see an example where both arrays get stretched.

import numpy as np a = np.array([0.0, 10.0, 20.0, 30.0]) b = np.array([0.0, 1.0, 2.0]) print(a[:, np.newaxis] + b)

Output:

*In some cases, broadcasting stretches both arrays to form an output array larger than either of the initial arrays.*

**3. Working with datetime**

Numpy has core array data types which natively support datetime functionality. The data type is called “datetime64”, so named because “datetime” is already taken by the datetime library included in Python.

Consider the example below for some examples:

import numpy as np # creating a date today = np.datetime64('2017-02-12') print("Date is:", today) print("Year is:", np.datetime64(today, 'Y')) # creating array of dates in a month dates = np.arange('2017-02', '2017-03', dtype='datetime64[D]') print("\nDates of February, 2017:\n", dates) print("Today is February:", today in dates) # arithmetic operation on dates dur = np.datetime64('2017-05-22') - np.datetime64('2016-05-22') print("\nNo. of days:", dur) print("No. of weeks:", np.timedelta64(dur, 'W')) # sorting dates a = np.array(['2017-02-12', '2016-10-13', '2019-05-22'], dtype='datetime64') print("\nDates in sorted order:", np.sort(a))

Output:

Date is: 2017-02-12 Year is: 2017 Dates of February, 2017: ['2017-02-01' '2017-02-02' '2017-02-03' '2017-02-04' '2017-02-05' '2017-02-06' '2017-02-07' '2017-02-08' '2017-02-09' '2017-02-10' '2017-02-11' '2017-02-12' '2017-02-13' '2017-02-14' '2017-02-15' '2017-02-16' '2017-02-17' '2017-02-18' '2017-02-19' '2017-02-20' '2017-02-21' '2017-02-22' '2017-02-23' '2017-02-24' '2017-02-25' '2017-02-26' '2017-02-27' '2017-02-28'] Today is February: True No. of days: 365 days No. of weeks: 52 weeks Dates in sorted order: ['2016-10-13' '2017-02-12' '2019-05-22']

**4. Linear algebra in NumPy**

The **Linear Algebra** module of NumPy offers various methods to apply linear algebra on any numpy array.

You can find:

- rank, determinant, trace, etc. of an array.
- eigen values of matrices
- matrix and vector products (dot, inner, outer,etc. product), matrix exponentiation
- solve linear or tensor equations and much more!

Consider the example below which explains how we can use NumPy to do some matrix operations.

import numpy as np A = np.array([[6, 1, 1], [4, -2, 5], [2, 8, 7]]) print("Rank of A:", np.linalg.matrix_rank(A)) print("\nTrace of A:", np.trace(A)) print("\nDeterminant of A:", np.linalg.det(A)) print("\nInverse of A:\n", np.linalg.inv(A)) print("\nMatrix A raised to power 3:\n", np.linalg.matrix_power(A, 3))

Output:

Rank of A: 3 Trace of A: 11 Determinant of A: -306.0 Inverse of A: [[ 0.17647059 -0.00326797 -0.02287582] [ 0.05882353 -0.13071895 0.08496732] [-0.11764706 0.1503268 0.05228758]] Matrix A raised to power 3: [[336 162 228] [406 162 469] [698 702 905]]

Let us assume that we want to solve this linear equation set:

```
x + 2*y = 8
3*x + 4*y = 18
```

This problem can be solved using **linalg.solve** method as shown in example below:

import numpy as np # coefficients a = np.array([[1, 2], [3, 4]]) # constants b = np.array([8, 18]) print("Solution of linear equations:", np.linalg.solve(a, b))

Output:

Solution of linear equations: [ 2. 3.]

Finally, we see an example which shows how one can perform linear regression using least squares method.

A linear regression line is of the form w1*x + w*2 = y and it is the line that minimizes the sum of the squares of the distance from each data point to the line. So, given n pairs of data (xi, yi), the parameters that we are looking for are w1 and w2 which minimize the error:

Let us have a look at the example below:

import numpy as np import matplotlib.pyplot as plt # x co-ordinates x = np.arange(0, 9) A = np.array([x, np.ones(9)]) # linearly generated sequence y = [19, 20, 20.5, 21.5, 22, 23, 23, 25.5, 24] # obtaining the parameters of regression line w = np.linalg.lstsq(A.T, y)[0] # plotting the line line = w[0]*x + w[1] # regression line plt.plot(x, line, 'r-') plt.plot(x, y, 'o') plt.show()

Output:

So, this leads to the conclusion of this series of NumPy tutorial.

NumPy is a widely used general purpose library which is at the core of many other computation libraries like scipy, scikit-learn, tensorflow, matplotlib, opencv, etc. Having a basic understanding of NumPy helps in dealing with other higher level libraries efficiently!

**References:**

- http://scipy.github.io/old-wiki/pages/EricsBroadcastingDoc
- https://docs.scipy.org/doc/numpy/reference/arrays.datetime.html#arrays-dtypes-dateunits
- https://docs.scipy.org/doc/numpy/reference/routines.linalg.html
- http://glowingpython.blogspot.in/2012/03/linear-regression-with-numpy.html

Please comment if you find anything wrong or want some more topics to be discussed in above article. I would love to hear from you! 🙂